SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody Cat. No.: 3525

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HOMOLOGY: Predicted reactivity based on immunogen sequence: SARS-CoV Spike proteins: (100%)
IMMUNOGEN: Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike antibody (3525) was raised against a peptide corresponding to 20 amino acids near the carboxy terminus of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike glycoprotein.

The immunogen is located within the last 50 amino acids of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike protein.
APPLICATIONS: WB: 1 μg/mL; IF: 1 μg/mL. IHC: 0.2 μg/mL

Antibody validated: Immunofluorescence and Western blot in human samples. Immunohisochemistry and immunofuorescence in COVID-19 patient samples. It will detect 4 ng of free peptide at 1 μg/mL. The immunogen for this is within the last 50 aa of the spike protein - a peptide corresponding to 20 amino acids near the carboxy terminus of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike glycoprotein. The Extracellular domain (ECD) is from aa 1 to 1208 (full length 1273aa). Therefore, this antibody detects the transmembrane and cytoplasm domains at the C terminus, but does not detect the ECD (which is the region expressed in many commercially available spike proteins). 3525 can be used for the detection of full length spike protein and spike protein in COVID-19 patient samples. All other applications and species not yet tested.

PURIFICATION:SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody is affinity chromatography purified via peptide column.
BUFFER:SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody is supplied in PBS containing 0.02% sodium azide.
STORAGE CONDITIONS:SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike antibody can be stored at 4˚C for three months and -20˚C, stable for up to one year. As with all antibodies care should be taken to avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles. Antibodies should not be exposed to prolonged high temperatures.

psi-iconAdditional Info
ALTERNATE NAMES:SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Antibody: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Surface Glycoprotein, Spike protein
PROTEIN GI NO.:1791269090
GENE ID:43740568
USER NOTE:Optimal dilutions for each application to be determined by the researcher.
psi-iconBackground and References
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), formerly known as 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a virus closely related to the SARS virus (1). The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak (2). The structure of 2019-nCoV consists of the following: a Spike protein (S), hemagglutinin-esterease dimer (HE), a membrane glycoprotein (M), an envelope protein (E) a nucleoclapid protein (N) and RNA. Coronavirus invades cells through Spike (S) glycoproteins, a class I fusion protein. It is the major viral surface protein that coronavirus uses to bind to the human cell surface receptor. It also mediates the fusion of host and viral cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter human cells and begin infection (3). The spike protein is the major target for neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development (4). The protein modeling suggests that there is strong interaction between Spike protein receptor-binding domain and its host receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which regulate both the cross-species and human-to-human transmissions of COVID-19 (5). The recent study has shown that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binds ACE2 with higher affinity than SARS-CoV spike protein (6).
REFERENCES:1) Gorbalenya. bioRxiv: 2020.
2) Hui et al. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;91:264-266.
3) Belouzard et al. Viruses. 2012;4(6):1011-33.
4) Lee et al. J Virol. 2006;80(8):4079-87.
5) Wan et al. J Virol. 2020.
6) Wrapp et al. Science. 2020.
CITATIONS: 1)Nuovo GJ et al. Cytologic and molecular correlates of SARS-CoV-2 infection of the nasopharynx. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2020; 48:151565. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151565. PMID: 32659620
2)Magro C, Mulvey JJ, Berlin D, Nuovo G, Salvatore S, Harp J, Baxter-Stoltzfus A, Laurence J. Complement associated microvascular injury and thrombosis in the pathogenesis of severe COVID-19 infection: A report of five cases. Transl Res. 2020; 220:1-13. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2020.04.007. PMID: 32299776
3)Ko, et al. Discordant anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and RNA staining in cutaneous perniotic lesions suggests endothelial deposition of cleaved spike protein. J Cutan Pathol . 2021 Jan;48(1):47-52. doi: 10.1111/cup.13866. Epub 2020 Oct 1.PMID: 32895985 
4)Magro, et al. Docked severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 proteins within the cutaneous and subcutaneous microvasculature and their role in the pathogenesis of severe coronavirus disease 2019. Hum Pathol. 2020 Dec;106:106-116. doi: 10.1016/j.humpath.2020.10.002. Epub 2020 Oct 12.PMID: 33058948
5)Magro, et al. The differing pathophysiologies that underlie COVID-19-associated perniosis and thrombotic retiform purpura: a case series. Br J Dermatol. 2020 Jul 22;10.1111/bjd.19415. doi: 10.1111/bjd.19415PMID: 32779733
6)Mulvey, et al. Analysis of complement deposition and viral RNA in placentas of COVID-19 patients. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2020 Jun;46:151530. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151530. Epub 2020 Apr 25.PMID: 32387855
7)Nuovo, et al. Strong homology between SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein and a Mycobacterium sp. antigen allows rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterial infections and may provide specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity via the BCG vaccine. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2020 Oct;48:151600. doi: 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2020.151600. Epub 2020 Aug 13.PMID: 32805515
8)Singh, et al. Responses to acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 in the lungs of rhesus macaques, baboons and marmosets. Nat Microbiol. 2021 Jan;6(1):73-86. doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-00841-4. Epub 2020 Dec 18PMID: 33340034


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