PKR Antibody Cat. No.: 3949

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psi-iconSpecifications
HOST SPECIES:Rabbit
SPECIES REACTIVITY: Human, Rat
HOMOLOGY: Predicted species reactivity based on immunogen sequence: Mouse (86%)
IMMUNOGEN: Anti-PKR antibody (3949) was raised against a 14 amino acid synthetic peptide near the amino terminus of human PKR.

The immunogen is located within the first 50 amino acids of PKR.
TESTED APPLICATIONS: ELISA, IHC-P, WB
APPLICATIONS: WB: 0.5-1 μg/mL; IHC-P: 5 μg/mL.

Antibody validated: Western Blot in human samples and Immunohistochemistry in rat samples. All other applications and species not yet tested.
POSITIVE CONTROL:1) Cat. No. 1208 - THP-1 cell lysate
 2) Cat. No. 1462 - Rat Lung Tissue Lysate
 3) Cat. No. 1224 - Daudi Cell Lysate
 4) Cat. No. 1202– A431 Cell Lysate
PREDICTED MOLECULAR WEIGHT: Predicted: 62kD

Observed: 68kD
psi-iconAdvanced Validation
VALIDATION:

Independent Antibody Validation in Cell lines (Figure 2) shows similar PKR expression profile in human and mouse cell lines detected by two independent anti-PKR antibodies that recognize different epitopes, 3947 against C-terminus domain and 3949 against N-terminus domain.  PKR proteins are detected in all the tested human cell lines except SK-N-SH cell line at different expression levels  by the two independent antibodies.  

ISOFORMS: Human PKR has 2 isoforms, including isoform 1 (551aa, 62.1kD) and isoform S (510aa, 57.4kD. This antibody detects both human isoforms. Mouse PKR has 1 isoform (515aa, 58.3kD). Rat PKR has only one isoform identified so far (513aa, 58.3kD).

psi-iconProperties
PURIFICATION:PKR Antibody is affinity chromatography purified via peptide column.
CLONALITY:Polyclonal
ISOTYPE:IgG
CONJUGATE:Unconjugated
PHYSICAL STATE:Liquid
BUFFER:PKR Antibody is supplied in PBS containing 0.02% sodium azide.
CONCENTRATION:1 mg/mL
STORAGE CONDITIONS:PKR antibody can be stored at 4˚C for three months and -20˚C, stable for up to one year. As with all antibodies care should be taken to avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles. Antibodies should not be exposed to prolonged high temperatures.

psi-iconAdditional Info
OFFICIAL SYMBOL:EIF2AK2
ALTERNATE NAMES:PKR Antibody: PKR, PRKR, EIF2AK1, PKR, Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2, eIF-2A protein kinase 2
ACCESSION NO.:NP_002750
PROTEIN GI NO.:31747519
GENE ID:5610
USER NOTE:Optimal dilutions for each application to be determined by the researcher.
psi-iconBackground and References
BACKGROUND:PKR Antibody: The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR is a member of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2 alpha (eIF2-alpha) kinase family, possessing serine-threonine kinase activity and two dsRNA-binding motifs that acts as part of the innate immune system. Upon binding dsRNA, PKR undergoes a conformational change leading to its activation and its phosphorylation of the translation factor eIF2, resulting in a general shutdown of protein synthesis and induction of apoptosis through upregulation of caspase-8 and capsase-9 activity in order to prevent the production of more viruses. To evade the antiviral effects of PKR, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms, such as the inhibition of PKR by the non-structural protein (NS1) of the influenza virus. More recently, PKR has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer, Huntington, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
REFERENCES:1) Meurs E, Chong K, Galabru J, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase induced by interferon. Cell 1990; 62:379-90.
2) Saelens X, Kalai M, and Vandenabeele P. Translation inhibition in apoptosis: Caspase-dependent PKR activation and eIF2-alpha phosphorylation. J. Biol. Chem. 2001; 276:41620-8.
3) Gil J and Esteban M. Induction of apoptosis by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR): Mechanism of action. Apoptosis 2000; 5:107-14.
4) Gil J, Garcia MA, and Esteban M. Caspase 9 activation by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR: Molecular mechanism and relevance. FEBS Lett. 2002; 19:3665-74.

ANTIBODIES FOR RESEARCH USE ONLY.

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